COMPETITIVE-EXAM-DETAILS

Updates

M.Sc. Entrance Examinations

We are conducting this course since 2011, and we have produced many excellent results, we have even achieved many

ALL INDIA RANK - 1

which are as follows:

First Ranks achieved by ACPL students over the years
NAME COLLEGE ALL INDIA RANKING
MANDIRA NANDI ASUTOSH COLLEGE 1st (ISM) (2011-2012)
DEEP SANKAR PAUL  SCOTTISH CHURCH COLLEGE 1st (IACS) (2011-2012)
POOJA AGARWAL ST. XAVIER'S COLLEGE 1st (JAM) (2012-2013)
KUNTAL CHATTERJEE BANGABASHI COLLEGE 1st (HYDERABAD SCHOOL OF CHEMISTRY) (2012-2013)
NIKITA CHIRIPAL ST. XAVIER'S COLLEGE 1st (JAM) (2014-2015)
AMBREEN RASHID LADY BRABOURNE COLLEGE 1st (IACS) (2014-2015)
AVISHIKTA UPADHYAY ST. XAVIER'S COLLEGE 1st (IISER) (2014-2015)
MEGHNA GHOSH LADY BRABOURNE COLLEGE 1st (ISM) (2014-2015)

 

more BRILLIANT RESULTS PRODUCED BY ACPL IN COMPETITIVE SECTOR:
 

INDRANI BANERJEE (LBC) Rank 2 (ISM);

MALYASHREE GIRI (LBC) Rank 3 (ISM);

KUNTAL CHATTERJEE (BANGABASHI COLLEGE) Rank 3 (ISM);

SUDIPTA DAS (S. A. JAIPURIA) Rank 5 (JAM);

VISHAL YADAV (Vidyasagar) Rank 5 (JAM) and many more selections.

Once again our students proved to be the best Chemistry students of India by maintaining the legacy of the outstanding results once more.

Achievers’ Circle holds TWO names out of 1st 10 ALL INDIA RANKS in JAM 2016

Sayan Bannerjee (J.U.) AIR 6;

Ashraful Islam (MAC) AIR 9

 

 

Details of Examinations

The Entrance Examinations for admission to the post-graduation courses in India can be categorized into two subclasses:- 

  1. M.Sc. Entrance Examinations Outside West Bengal
  2. M.Sc. Entrance Examinations Within West Bengal
M.Sc. Entrance Examinations Outside West Bengal

This includes:

IIT JAM, TIFR, Hyderabad School of Chemistry, BHU, Pondicherry, DU, etc. 

Preparation for these entrance exams is covered in our

POST GRADUATION NATIONAL ENTRANCE TEST COURSE

ACPL conducts 

  1. Classroom Study Program 
  2. Preparatory Test Series Program

in this course. A student might enroll in either the Classroom Program or only the Test Series Program. 

In these classes, we will focus on All India Post Graduation Entrance Test pattern, its difficulty level, and question types.

1. Classroom Study Program

ACPL offers comprehensive classroom study program and mock test series for M.Sc. Entrance Examinations (IIT JAM, TIFR, BHU, CU, DU & other eminent universities) in Chemistry, Biological Sciences (BL/ BT), Physics and Mathematics.

  1. The main feature of these courses is that all the subjects are taught from basic level to advanced level.
  2. There is the due emphasis on
  • subject understanding,
  • solving numerical and conceptual questions in the class along with
  • solving the previous years’ question papers of different M.Sc. Entrance Examinations.
  1. Classes are taken by a team of Eminent Professors: IIT-JAM, UGC-CSIR-NET and GATE Top Rankers. They have long time teaching experience in their respective fields with proven excellence.
     
  2. Relevant study materials and assignments are provided to the students during the classroom sessions.
     
  3. The Course is specially designed with the time management method to provide maximum information in the limited time available to the students for preparing for these competitive exams. 
     
  4. MOCK TESTS are conducted regularly maintaining the schedule along with an immediate evaluation of the answer scripts and declaration of results on the same date.

The Course is split up into two categories:

  1. One Year Course - For Third Year students
  2. Two Year Course - For Second & Third Year Students

The detailed Course Syllabus for either is provided below. 

2. Preparatory Test Series Program

ACPL offers, to those students who do not wish to attend the classroom sessions, the opportunity to evaluate their knowledge through the MOCK TEST series.

Students enrolling for this course can sit for all the Mock Tests that are conducted by ACPL as a part of the classroom study program.

M.Sc. Entrance Examinations Within West Bengal

This includes:

CU, JU, Presidency, RKM colleges, BESU, Kalyani, Vidyasagar, Burdwan, etc.

The admission for the second category (M.Sc. Entrance Examinations within West Bengal) will be conducted by the implementation of the "COMMON ENTRANCE TEST (CET)". It has been gaining importance steadily as all the Universities have started to consider admission through CET followed by sequential counseling. It is expected that soon 100% admission to M.Sc. Courses within West Bengal will be based on CET. Hence for M.Sc. admission to any University within West Bengal, it will become mandatory for the aspiring candidates to ace the CET.

Preparation for this entrance exam is covered in our

COMMON ENTRANCE TEST (CET) Preparation Course.

This is a combined Classroom Program cum Test Series course. In these classes, we will focus on West Bengal Universities post graduation entrance pattern, its difficulty level, and question types.

The Course is of THREE YEARS duration, split into SIX (6) SEMESTERS.

FIRST YEAR students can enroll right from the beginning of the session, along with the regular Classroom Study Program for Under-Grad Courses.

SECOND YEAR students can also enroll from the THIRD SEMESTER.

The detailed Course Syllabus for either is provided below. 

Why is Competitive Exam Preparation Vital?

Many students who are determined to stick to academics aspire to pursue higher education (M.Sc., Ph.D.) from the best Universities/Institutes in the country. Since the number of seats available is limited, the competition is extremely steep. The key to success is to strike a balance between their regular (Graduation) and Competitive Exam course syllabi.

Achievers Circle is a structured and accomplished institution complete in all aspects for providing quality guidance for the prestigious examinations like  IIT-JAM, TIFR, Hyderabad School of Chemistry, BHU, CU, BESU, Presidency, DU Entrance Exam. Its sole motto is to help students achieve their full potential by providing them the best guidance to face the competition at the state and national level entrance exams.

ACPL's well-experienced faculty is well aware of the kind of preparation the student needs to crack these competitive exams. We emphasize on

  • easy techniques,
  • timely completion of syllabus and
  • stressing on vital chapters of the subject matter
  • accompanied by a well-planned classroom program and test series.

The conduction of regular tests and declaration of the marks on the same day enable authentic and periodic evaluation of performance. 




Pattern of Exam and Marks Distribution

OUR OBJECTIVE

The syllabus of the different All India M.Sc. Entrance Examination is first broken down into 4 Modules. In the current session, we would emphasize on 1st two modules which constitute the 1st year syllabus. This would not only accelerate the preparation for the M.Sc. Entrance Examination but also it will be helpful in preparing for the upcoming University Examination. Students will get ample opportunity to judge their progress and get acquainted with the process.

In these classes, we mainly conduct Mock Tests based on the respective Modules. We do spot evaluation of these tests. This is followed by solution discussion and concept clearing classes (as and when required).

Overall 3 Mock tests are taken for a month for a Module followed by an overall Mock Test for the whole Module Syllabus. Study Material if required is provided to the students by the teachers when asked for the same for the payment of the Xerox price for the material.

These classes are mainly meant for Practice and Revise (to give you adequate pressure to study and come prepared for the topics in Exams) and also to develop your problem-solving Skills in the different M.Sc. Entrance Examinations.




Syllabus

Common Entrance Test (CET) for Post Graduation in Chemistry (CH-CET)

Syllabus (THREE years Course)

CH-CET-SEM- 1

INORGANIC-1

Chemical Bonding and structure-I & Chemical Periodicity

Covalent bonding: Lewis structures, formal charge. Valence Bond Theory, hybridizations, Bent’s rule, VSEPR theory, shapes of molecules and ions bond moment, dipole moment and electronegativity differences. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.

Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties. Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristic of s, p, d and f block elements.

Position of hydrogen and noble gases in the periodic table. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, Slater’s rules, atomic radii, ionic radii (Pauling’s univalent), covalent radii. Ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity (Pauling’s, Mulliken’s and Allred-Rochow’s scales) and factors influencing these properties. Inert pair effect. Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in respect of s-, p- and d-block elements.

Ionic Bonding

Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules and their limitations. Packing of ions in crystals, lattice energy, Born-lande equation and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its applications. Solvation energy, polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential, Fazan’s rules. Defects in solids (elemementary idea)

ORGANIC-1

Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry and Stereochemistry:

Isomerism and nomenclature, electronic (resonance and inductive) effects. Optical isomerism in compounds containing one and two asymmetric centers, designation of absolute configuration. Representation of molecules in saw horse, Fischer, flying-wedge and Newman formulae and their inter-translations, symmetry elements, molecular chirality. Configuration: stereogenic units i) stereocentres: systems involving 1, 2, 3centres, stereogenicity, chirotopicity. pseudoasymmetric (D/L and R/S descriptor, threo/erythro and syn/anti nomenclatures (for aldols) ii) stereoaxis: chiral axis in allenes & biphenyls, R/S descriptor; cis/trans, syn/anti, E/Z descriptors (for C=C, C=N).

Aromaticity and Huckel's rule:

 Mono and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Frost diagram, Huckel’s rules for aromaticity & antiaromaticity; homoaromaticity.

Reactive intermediates

Carbocations (cabenium and carbonium ions), carbanions, carbon radicals, carbenes – structure using orbital picture, electrophilic/nucleophilic behaviour, stability, benzyne intermediate-formation and applications.

Reaction kinetics

Primary kinetic isotopic effect (kH/kD), principle of microscopic reversibility, Hammond postulate.

PHYSICAL-1

Gaseous states (K.T.O.G.)

Kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law – detailed treatment.Collision of gas molecules, collision diameter; collision number and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion. Equipartition principle. Fundamental concepts for real gases- Vanderwaal’s equation.

Thermodynamics (part 1)

System and surroundings –basic concepts and examples, Extensive and intensive properties- basic concepts and examples, State functions and path functions-fundamental knowledge and basics properties. Zeroth law of thermodynamics and concept of thermal equilibrium. Heat and work (IUPAC convention)- calculation of work done for reversible and irreversible processes and relevant graphical representation.

First law of Thermodynamics –Concept of ‘U’& ‘H’ as a state function. Concept of Cp and Cv. Isochoric, Isobaric, Isothermal and Adiabatic processes (detailed mathematical treatment), Joule’s experiment and its consequences

Thermochemistry –Heat changes during various physicochemical processes, Kirchoff’s relations, concept of standard state, Bond dissociation energy.

Kinetics and Catalysis

Degree of advancement of a reaction. Rate law – reaction rate, rate constant, order and molecularity. Reactions of zero order, first order and fractional order ; Pseudo first order. Concept of r.d.s and S.S.A and their applications, microscopic reversibility, dynamic chain (H2-Br2 reaction, decomposition of ethane and acetaldehyde) and oscillatory reactions (Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction), branching chain: H2+O2 reaction. Complex reactions -Parallel, opposing and consecutive. Temperature dependence of rate constant-Arrhenius’ equation, activation energy.

Basic knowledge of catalyst and catalysis. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis. Arrhenious and van't Hoff complexes, generalised acid base catalysis, auto catalysis and enzyme catalysis. Michaelis - Menten equation , influence of temperature and pH.

 

CH-CET-SEM- 2

INORGANIC-2

Radioactivity and Atomic Structure

Nuclear stability and nuclear binding energy. Nuclear forces: meson exchange theory. Nuclear models (elementary idea): Concept of nuclear quantum number, magic numbers. Nuclear Reactions: Artificial radioactivity, transmutation of elements, fission, fusion and spallation. Nuclear energy and power generation. Separation and uses of isotopes. Radio chemical methods: principles of determination of age of rocks and minerals, radio carbon dating, hazards of radiation and safety measures. Bohr’s theory to hydrogen-like atoms and ions; spectrum of hydrogen atom. Quantum numbers. Introduction to the concept of atomic orbitals; shapes, radial and angular probability diagrams of s, p and d orbitals (qualitative idea). Many electron atoms and ions: Pauli’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rule, exchange energy, Aufbau principle and its limitation. Electronic energy level diagram and electronic configurations of hydrogen-like and polyelectronic atoms and ions. Term symbols of atoms and ions for atomic numbers < 30.

Acid-Base Equilibria:

Acid-Base concept: Arrhenius concept, theory of solvent system (in H2O, NH3,SO2 and HF), Bronsted-Lowry’s concept, relative strength of acids, Pauling rules. Amphoterism. Lux-Flood concept, Lewis concept. Superacids, HSAB principle. General concept of acid-base equilibria in water and in non-aqueous solvent, Definition of pH and pH scale (Sorenson and operational definitions), and its significance, Hammett acidity function, pH calculation for aqueous solutions of very weak acid and very weak base, salts of weak acid and weak bases, mixture of weak acid and its salts, mixture of weak base and its salts. Theory of buffer solution, dilution and salts effects on the pH of a buffer, Buffer index, Criteria and expression of maximum buffer capacity, Application of pH buffers.Acid-base neutralisation curves; indicator, choice of indicators.

ORGANIC-2

Basic mechanisms:

Sustitution at sp3 centre - Mechanism: SN1, SN2, SN2, SNi mechanisms, effect of solvent, substrate structure, leaving group, nucleophiles including ambident nucleophiles (cyanide & nitrite) substitution involving NGP;

Elimination - Mechanisms: E1, E2 and E1cB; reactivity, orientation (Saytzeff/

Hofmann) and stereoselectivity;

Aromatic substitution:

Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Problems based on nitration, nitrosation, sulfonation, halogenation, Friedel-Crafts reactions etc. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

Addition reactions:

Electrophilic addition to C=C: Mechanism, reactivity, regioselectivity and stereoselectivity. Reactions: halogenations, hydrohalogenation, hydration, hydrogenation, epoxidation, hydroxylation, ozonolysis, electrophiilic addition to diene (conjugated dienes and allenes). Radical addition: HBr addition. Dissolving metal reduction of alkynes and bezenoid aromatics (Birch). Pericyclic addition: Diels-Alder reaction. Addition of singlet and triplet carbenes.

PHYSICAL-2

Thermodynamics (part 2)

Heat reservoirs, heat engines and refrigerators .Kelvin –Planck  statement and Clausius statement and their equivalence. Carnot’s theorem and its consequences. Carnot’s cycle- detailed mathematical treatment and various graphical representations. Concept of entropy as a state function. Clausius inequality and its significance and second law in terms of entropy. Equations of state (1st and 2nd equation of state). Calculation of entropy for various reversible and irreversible processes. Auxiliary state functions (G&A) – their variations with fundamental state functions T,P&V, criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium there from. Thermodynamics relations: Maxwell’s relation ,Gibb’s-Helmholtz equations. Joule’s experiment and its consequences. Joule-Thomson experiment – concept of Joule –Thomson co-efficient , concept of inversion temperature, comparison with isoentropic process.

Real gases

Deviation from ideal behavior; Compressibility factor; Amagat’s curves and Boyle temperature, Andrew’s experimental curves. Vander Waals interpretation of these curves. Introduction of the Ditereci equation of state, Principle of continuity of states. Critical constants in terms of Vander Waals equation; Reduced equation of state-law of corresponding states. Virial equation of state, the rules of Cailletet and Mathias. intermolecular forces (Keesom, Debye, London) and potentials.

 

CH-CET-SEM- 3

PHYSICAL-3

Quantum (part 1)

Preliminary quantum mechanics:- Concept of black body radiations, de-Broglie’s wave particle duality, matter wave, concept of wave packets, photoelectric effect, Einstein’s Quanta, Compton effect, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

Basic quantum mechanics:- Postulates of quantum mechanics –interpretation of wave function and their acceptability, elementary concept of operators –various types with examples, calculation of average values of various physical observables.

Applications:- Concept of particle in a box problem :- Detailed quantum mechanical treatment of particle in one dimensional box. Hence its extension to two and three dimensions and the concept of degenerate energy levels.

 

Conductance

Electrical conductance – specific and equivalent conductance for strong and weak electrolytes and effect of dilution, concept of infinite dilution, mobility of ions, Electrophoretic and Asymmetric effect, Conductometric titrations – Various examples  

Kohlrausch’s law – independent migration and applications.

Transport numbers- Effect of concentration and temperature on transport number, Abnormal transport number and determination of transport number.

 

CH-CET-SEM- 4

PHYSICAL-4

Thermodynamics (part 3)

Basic open system:- chemical potential, partial molar quantities , concept of fugacity and activity for ideal gas, real gas ,ideal solution, real solution, thermodynamics of mixing.

Chemical equilibrium:- thermodynamics conditions for equilibrium, Van’t Hoff’s reaction isotherm – kp , kc and kx. Van’t Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochors- effect of temperature on K. Le-Chatelier’s principle- effect of temperature, pressure and introduction of inert gas.

Electrolytic solutions:-  Ionic activities, mean ionic activities, Activity coefficients and mean ionic activity coefficients, Debye-Huckel limiting law - Statement and Application on solubility equilibrium and influence of common ions and indifferent ions thereon

Ionic equilibrium:- pH and buffer solutions, hydrolysis, solubility product.

 

Electrochemistry

Types of cells with examples and cell reactions, application of Nernst equation, determination of E0, glass electrode and pH determination,  ∆G, ∆H and ∆S of a cell reaction, various types of potentiometric titrations (acid base and redox),concentration cells with and without transport, liquid junction potential and its elimination, polarography.

 

CH-CET-SEM- 4

PHYSICAL-5

 



For One Year Course

Syllabus of M.Sc. Entrance Series for Chemical Sciences 

 

Module - 1

INORGANIC

(a) Chemical Bonding and structure-I

Ionic bonding: Radius ratio, lattice energy, Born-Lande equation, Born-Haber cycle and its applications, Solvation energy and solubility of ionic solids. Polarizing power and polarisibility of ions; Fajan's rules. structure of NaCl, CsCl, diamond and graphite ionic potential, Fajans rules, Defects in solids.

Covalent bonding: Lewis structures, formal charge. Valence Bond Theory, hybridizations, Bent’s rule, VSEPR theory, shapes of molecules and ions bond moment, dipole moment and electronegativity differences. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.

(b) Chemical periodicity

Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties. Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristic of s, p, d and f block elements. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, Slater’s rules, atomic radii, ionic radii (Pauling’s univalent), covalent radii. Ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity (Pauling’s, Mulliken’s and Allred-Rochow’s scales) and factors influencing these properties. Inert pair effect. Ionic radii and Lanthanide contraction: Cause and Consequences of lanthanide contraction.

ORGANIC

(a) Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry and Stereochemistry:

 Isomerism and nomenclature, electronic (resonance and inductive) effects. Optical isomerism in compounds containing one and two asymmetric centers, designation of absolute configuration. Representation of molecules in saw horse, Fischer, flying-wedge and Newman formulae and their inter-translations, symmetry elements, molecular chirality. Configuration: stereogenic units i) stereocentres: systems involving 1, 2, 3centres, stereogenicity, chirotopicity. pseudoasymmetric (D/L and R/S descriptor, threo/erythro and syn/anti nomenclatures (for aldols) ii) stereoaxis: chiral axis in allenes & biphenyls, R/S descriptor; cis/trans, syn/anti, E/Z descriptors (for C=C, C=N).

 (b) Aromaticity and Huckel's rule:

 Mono and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Frost diagram, Huckel’s rules for aromaticity & antiaromaticity; homoaromaticity.

(c)Reactive intermediates:

 carbocations (cabenium and carbonium ions), carbanions, carbon radicals, carbenes – structure using orbital picture, electrophilic/nucleophilic behaviour, stability, benzyne intermediate-formation and applications.

(d)Reaction kinetics:

 primary kinetic isotopic effect (kH/kD), principle of microscopic reversibility, Hammond

 postulate.

PHYSICAL

  1. Kinetics and Catalysis

Degree of advancement of a reaction. Rate law – reaction rate, rate constant, order and molecularity. Reactions of zero order, first order and fractional order ; Pseudo first order. Concept of r.d.s and S.S.A and their applications. Complex reactions -Parallel, opposing and consecutive. Temperature dependence of rate constant-Arrhenius’ equation, activation energy.Basic knowledge of catalyst and catalysis. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis. Acid base catalysis, auto catalysis and enzyme catalysis. Michaelis - Menten equation , influence of temperature and pH.

  1. Gaseous states

Kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law – detailed treatment.Collision of gas molecules, collision diameter; collision number and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion. Equipartition principle. Fundamental concepts for real gases- Vanderwaal’s equation. Deviation from ideal behavior; Compressibility factor; Amagat’s curves and Boyle temperature, Andrew’s experimental curves. Vander Waals interpretation of these curves. Principle of  continuity of states. Critical constants in terms of Vander Waals equation; Reduced equation of state-law of corresponding states. Virial equation of state.

 

Module - 2

INORGANIC

(a) Radioactivity and Atomic Structure:

Nuclear stability and nuclear binding energy, packing fraction, Nuclear forces: meson exchange theory.Nuclear models (elementary idea), magic numbers. Artificial radioactivity, transmutation of elements, fission, fusion and spallation, Radio chemical methods: principles of determination of age of rocks and minerals, radio carbon dating.

Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom and ions; Wave-particle duality; Uncertainty principles; Schrodinger’s wave equation; Quantum numbers, shapes of orbitals; Hund’s rule and Pauli’s exclusion principle.,exchange energy, Term symbols of atoms and ions for atomic numbers < 30. Effective nuclear charge and its determination.

(b) Acid-Base Equilibria:

Acid-Base concept: Arrhenius concept, theory of solvent system (in H2O, NH3,SO2 and HF), Bronsted-Lowry’s concept, relative strength of acids, Pauling rules. Amphoterism. Lux-Flood concept, Lewis concept. Superacids, HSAB principle. General concept of acid-base equilibria in water and in non-aqueous solvent, Definition of pH and pH scale (Sorenson and operational definitions), and its significance, Hammett acidity function, pH calculation for aqueous solutions of very weak acid and very weak base, salts of weak acid and weak bases, mixture of weak acid and its salts, mixture of weak base and its salts. Theory of buffer solution, dilution and salts effects on the pH of a buffer, Buffer index, Criteria and expression of maximum buffer capacity, Application of pH buffers.Acid-base neutralisation curves; indicator, choice of indicators.

ORGANIC

(a)Basic mechanisms:

 Sustitution at sp3 centre - Mechanism: SN1, SN2, SN2, SNi mechanisms, effect of solvent, substrate structure, leaving group, nucleophiles including ambident nucleophiles (cyanide & nitrite) substitution involving NGP;

Elimination - Mechanisms: E1, E2 and E1cB; reactivity, orientation (Saytzeff/

Hofmann) and stereoselectivity;

(b)aromatic substitution:

Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Problems based on nitration, nitrosation, sulfonation, halogenation, Friedel-Crafts reactions etc. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

(c)Addition reactions:

Electrophilic addition to C=C: Mechanism, reactivity, regioselectivity and stereoselectivity. Reactions: halogenations, hydrohalogenation, hydration, hydrogenation,

epoxidation, hydroxylation, ozonolysis, electrophiilic addition to diene (conjugated dienes and allenes). Radical addition: HBr addition. Dissolving metal reduction of alkynes and bezenoid aromatics (Birch). Pericyclic addition: Diels-Alder reaction. Addition of singlet and triplet carbenes.

PHYSICAL

  1. Thermodynamics (part 1)

System and surroundings –basic concepts and examples, Extensive and intensive properties- basic concepts and examples, State functions and path functions-fundamental knowledge and basics properties. Zeroth law of thermodynamics and concept of thermal equilibrium. Heat and work (IUPAC convention)- calculation of work done for reversible and irreversible processes and relevant graphical representation.

First law of Thermodynamics –Concept of ‘U’& ‘H’ as a state function. Concept of Cp and Cv. Isochoric, Isobaric, Isothermal and Adiabatic processes (detailed mathematical treatment).

  1. Thermodynamics (part 2)

Heat reservoirs,heat engines and refrigerators .Kelvin –Planck  statement and Clausius statement and their equivalence.Carnot’s theorem and its consequences.Carnot’s cycle- detailed mathematical treatment and various graphical representations.Concept of entropy as a state function. Clausius inequality and its significance and second law in terms of entropy. Equations of state (1st and 2nd equation of state). Calculation of entropy for various reversible and irreversible processes. Auxiliary state functions (G&A) – their variations with fundamental state functions T,P&V, criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium there from. Thermodynamics relations: Maxwell’s relation ,Gibb’s-Helmholtz equations. Joule’s experiment and its consequences. Joule-Thomson experiment – concept of Joule –Thomson co-efficient , concept of inversion temperature, comparison with isoentropic process. Thermochemistry –Heat changes during various physicochemical processes, Kirchoff’s relations, concept of standard state, Bond dissociation energy.

  1. Kinetics and Catalysis

Degree of advancement of a reaction. Rate law – reaction rate, rate constant, order and molecularity. Reactions of zero order, first order and fractional order ; Pseudo first order. Concept of r.d.s and S.S.A and their applications. Complex reactions -Parallel, opposing and consecutive. Temperature dependence of rate constant-Arrhenius’ equation, activation energy. Theory of reactions – collision theory and transition state theory-basic treatment, concept of enthalpy and free energy of activation. Primary kinetic salt effect and its applications. Lindemann theory of unimolecular reactions .Basic knowledge of catalyst and catalysis. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis. Acid base catalysis, auto catalysis and enzyme catalysis. Michaelis - Menten equation , influence of temperature and pH.

 

 

Module - 3

INORGANIC

(a) Chemical Bonding and structure-II

Molecular orbital concept of bonding (elementary pictorial approach):sigma and

pi-bonds, multiple bonding, MO diagrams of H2, F2, O2, C2, B2, CO, NO, CN-, HF, and

H2O; bond orders, bond lengths, Coordinate bonding: Lewis acid-base adducts (examples), double salts and complex salts, Werner theory of coordination compounds. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds (up to two metal centers). Coordination numbers, constitutional isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes. Weak interactions: Hydrogen bonding (concept, types; effect on properties) and Vander Waal forces. Metallic bonding: qualitative idea of band theory, conducting, semi conducting and insulating properties with examples from main group elements.

 (b) Chemistry of s- block Elements:

S – Block Elements:

General trends in Physical and Chemical properties of the Elements and their important classes of Compounds. Lithium and Beryllium: Anomalous behaviour and diagonal relationship. Hydrides: Classification and general properties. Noble gases, Clathrates: Types, preparation and stability. Fluorides and Oxides of Xenon: Preparation, properties, structure and bonding (VB and MO treatment).

ORGANIC

Organic Reaction Mechanism and Synthetic Applications:

Wittig reaction. Carbonyl Reduction: hydride addition, Wolff-Kishner reduction, dissolving metal (Bouveault-Blanc reduction, Clemmensen Reduction), Cannizzaro reaction, Tischenko reaction, aldol condensation, benzoin condensation, Hydrolysis of nitriles and isonitriles, Nucleophilic addition to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system (general principles), Claisen condensation, esterification and ester hydrolysis, Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, Reimer-Tiemann, benzoin condensation,Perkin reaction, Claisen rearrangement, Beckmann rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. Synthesis of simple molecules using standard reactions of organic chemistry. Grignard reagents, acetoacetic and malonic ester chemistry.

PHYSICAL

  1. Thermodynamics (part 3)

Basic open system:- chemical potential, partial molar quantities , concept of fugacity and activity for ideal gas, real gas ,ideal solution, real solution and electrolytic solution- Debye-Huckel statement and applications, thermodynamics of mixing, Nernst's distribution law and applications. Chemical eqm:- thermodynamics conditions for equilibrium, Van’t Hoff’s reaction isotherm – kp , kc and kx. Van’t Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochors- effect of temperature on K. Le-chatelier’s principle- effect of temperature , pressure and introduction of inert gas. Clausius – Clapyeron equation, concept of triple point, phase diagrams of one component system. Ionic equilibrium- pH and buffer solutions, hydrolysis, solubility product.

  1. Conductance

Electrical conductance – specific and equivalent conductance for strong and weak electrolytes and effect of dilution, concept of infinite dilution, mobility of ions, conductometric titrations. Kohlrausch’s law – independent migration and applications.Transport numbers- dependence and determination.

 

 

Module - 4

(a) Chemistry of p- block Elements:

P – Block Elements:

Comparative study (including diagonal relationship and anomalous behaviour) of groups

(13 -17).Boron Hydrides: Introduction, Nomenclature, Preparation, Properties, Structure and

bonding in diborane, borazine : structure, bonding and reactions,Carbides. Nitrogen Compounds: Hydrazine, Hydroxylamine, Oxides and Oxyacids of nitrogen (Properties, Structure- bonding & Uses).Oxygen fluorides, Oxides and Oxyacids of Sulphur (Properties, Structure-bonding) Halogens:General properties, Interhalogens; Polyhalides and Pseudohalogens, Structure -bonding(SN)x with x = 2, 4; phosphazines; Structure of borates, silicates, polyphosphates, borazole, boron nitride, silicones.

(b)  Qualitative Analysis and Redox Reactions

Qualitative Analysis:

Underlying principles- Common-ion effect, Solubility product, Relation between

Solubility and Solubility product.Analysis of Inorganic Mixtures; - Group reagents, Selective precipitation of cations; Precipitation of Sulphides and metal hydroxides.Reactions involved in Separation and identification of Cations and anions. .

Redox Reactions

Ion-electron method of balancing equation of redox reaction. Elementary idea on standard redox potentials with sign conventions, Nernst equation (without derivation). Influence of complex formation, precipitation and change of pH on redox potentials; formal potential. Feasibility of a redox titration, redox potential at the equivalence point, redox indicators. Redox potential diagram (Latimer and Frost diagrams) of common elements and their applications. Disproportionation and comproportionation reactions (typical examples).

ORGANIC

  1. Nitrogen compounds and Organometallics:

Nitrogen compounds: amines (aliphatic & aromatic), enamines, Mannich reaction, diazomethane, diazoacetic ester, aromatic nitro compounds, aromatic diazonium salts, nitrile and isonitrile.

 (b)Organometallics:

preparation of Grignard reagent and organo lithium. Reactions: addition of Grignard and organo lithium to carbonyl compounds, Reformatsky reaction.

(c)Rearrangements :

Beckmann rearrangement, Hofmann rearrangement, Bamberger rearrangement, Orton rearrangement, Fries rearrangement, Claisen rearrangement, cumene hydroperoxide-phenol rearrangement, Curtius rearrangement, Dakin reaction.

PHYSICAL

BASIC QUANTUM MECHANICS

  1. Quantum (part 1)

Preliminary quantum mechanics :-concept of black body radiations, basic theory of photoelectric effect ,de-Broglie’s wave particle duality, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Basic quantum mechanics:- Postulates of quantum mechanics –interpretation of wave function and their acceptability, elementary concept of operators –various types with examples, calculation of average values of various physical observables. Concept of particle in a box problem :- Detailed quantum mechanical treatment of particle in one dimensional box. Hence its extension to two and three dimensions and the concept of degenerate energy levels.

  1. Electrochemistry

Types of cells with examples and cell reactions , application of Nernst equation, ∆G, ∆H and ∆S of a cell reaction and its application in various types of potentiometric titrations-determination of solubility product and other examples, glass electrode and pH determination. Concentration cells with and without transport, liquid junction potential and its elimination, polarography.

 

 

 

 

 

 



For Two Year Course

Syllabus of M.Sc. Entrance Series for Chemical Sciences 

 

Module - 1

INORGANIC

(a) Chemical Bonding and structure-I

Ionic bonding: Radius ratio, lattice energy, Born-Lande equation, Born-Haber cycle and its applications, Solvation energy and solubility of ionic solids. Polarizing power and polarisibility of ions; Fajan's rules. structure of NaCl, CsCl, diamond and graphite ionic potential, Fajans rules, Defects in solids.

Covalent bonding: Lewis structures, formal charge. Valence Bond Theory, hybridizations, Bent’s rule, VSEPR theory, shapes of molecules and ions bond moment, dipole moment and electronegativity differences. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.

(b) Chemical periodicity

Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties. Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristic of s, p, d and f block elements. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, Slater’s rules, atomic radii, ionic radii (Pauling’s univalent), covalent radii. Ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity (Pauling’s, Mulliken’s and Allred-Rochow’s scales) and factors influencing these properties. Inert pair effect. Ionic radii and Lanthanide contraction: Cause and Consequences of lanthanide contraction.

ORGANIC

(a) Basic Concepts in Organic Chemistry and Stereochemistry:

 Isomerism and nomenclature, electronic (resonance and inductive) effects. Optical isomerism in compounds containing one and two asymmetric centers, designation of absolute configuration. Representation of molecules in saw horse, Fischer, flying-wedge and Newman formulae and their inter-translations, symmetry elements, molecular chirality. Configuration: stereogenic units i) stereocentres: systems involving 1, 2, 3centres, stereogenicity, chirotopicity. pseudoasymmetric (D/L and R/S descriptor, threo/erythro and syn/anti nomenclatures (for aldols) ii) stereoaxis: chiral axis in allenes & biphenyls, R/S descriptor; cis/trans, syn/anti, E/Z descriptors (for C=C, C=N).

 (b) Aromaticity and Huckel's rule:

 Mono and bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Frost diagram, Huckel’s rules for aromaticity & antiaromaticity; homoaromaticity.

(c)Reactive intermediates:

 carbocations (cabenium and carbonium ions), carbanions, carbon radicals, carbenes – structure using orbital picture, electrophilic/nucleophilic behaviour, stability, benzyne intermediate-formation and applications.

(d)Reaction kinetics:

 primary kinetic isotopic effect (kH/kD), principle of microscopic reversibility, Hammond

 postulate.

PHYSICAL

  1. Kinetics and Catalysis

Degree of advancement of a reaction. Rate law – reaction rate, rate constant, order and molecularity. Reactions of zero order, first order and fractional order ; Pseudo first order. Concept of r.d.s and S.S.A and their applications. Complex reactions -Parallel, opposing and consecutive. Temperature dependence of rate constant-Arrhenius’ equation, activation energy.Basic knowledge of catalyst and catalysis. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis. Acid base catalysis, auto catalysis and enzyme catalysis. Michaelis - Menten equation , influence of temperature and pH.

  1. Gaseous states

Kinetic theory of gases, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law – detailed treatment.Collision of gas molecules, collision diameter; collision number and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion. Equipartition principle. Fundamental concepts for real gases- Vanderwaal’s equation. Deviation from ideal behavior; Compressibility factor; Amagat’s curves and Boyle temperature, Andrew’s experimental curves. Vander Waals interpretation of these curves. Principle of  continuity of states. Critical constants in terms of Vander Waals equation; Reduced equation of state-law of corresponding states. Virial equation of state.

 

Module - 2

INORGANIC

(a) Radioactivity and Atomic Structure:

Nuclear stability and nuclear binding energy, packing fraction, Nuclear forces: meson exchange theory.Nuclear models (elementary idea), magic numbers. Artificial radioactivity, transmutation of elements, fission, fusion and spallation, Radio chemical methods: principles of determination of age of rocks and minerals, radio carbon dating.

Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom and ions; Wave-particle duality; Uncertainty principles; Schrodinger’s wave equation; Quantum numbers, shapes of orbitals; Hund’s rule and Pauli’s exclusion principle.,exchange energy, Term symbols of atoms and ions for atomic numbers < 30. Effective nuclear charge and its determination.

(b) Acid-Base Equilibria:

Acid-Base concept: Arrhenius concept, theory of solvent system (in H2O, NH3,SO2 and HF), Bronsted-Lowry’s concept, relative strength of acids, Pauling rules. Amphoterism. Lux-Flood concept, Lewis concept. Superacids, HSAB principle. General concept of acid-base equilibria in water and in non-aqueous solvent, Definition of pH and pH scale (Sorenson and operational definitions), and its significance, Hammett acidity function, pH calculation for aqueous solutions of very weak acid and very weak base, salts of weak acid and weak bases, mixture of weak acid and its salts, mixture of weak base and its salts. Theory of buffer solution, dilution and salts effects on the pH of a buffer, Buffer index, Criteria and expression of maximum buffer capacity, Application of pH buffers.Acid-base neutralisation curves; indicator, choice of indicators.

ORGANIC

(a)Basic mechanisms:

 Sustitution at sp3 centre - Mechanism: SN1, SN2, SN2, SNi mechanisms, effect of solvent, substrate structure, leaving group, nucleophiles including ambident nucleophiles (cyanide & nitrite) substitution involving NGP;

Elimination - Mechanisms: E1, E2 and E1cB; reactivity, orientation (Saytzeff/

Hofmann) and stereoselectivity;

(b)aromatic substitution:

Electrophilic aromatic substitution, Problems based on nitration, nitrosation, sulfonation, halogenation, Friedel-Crafts reactions etc. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

(c)Addition reactions:

Electrophilic addition to C=C: Mechanism, reactivity, regioselectivity and stereoselectivity. Reactions: halogenations, hydrohalogenation, hydration, hydrogenation,

epoxidation, hydroxylation, ozonolysis, electrophiilic addition to diene (conjugated dienes and allenes). Radical addition: HBr addition. Dissolving metal reduction of alkynes and bezenoid aromatics (Birch). Pericyclic addition: Diels-Alder reaction. Addition of singlet and triplet carbenes.

PHYSICAL

  1. Thermodynamics (part 1)

System and surroundings –basic concepts and examples, Extensive and intensive properties- basic concepts and examples, State functions and path functions-fundamental knowledge and basics properties. Zeroth law of thermodynamics and concept of thermal equilibrium. Heat and work (IUPAC convention)- calculation of work done for reversible and irreversible processes and relevant graphical representation.

First law of Thermodynamics –Concept of ‘U’& ‘H’ as a state function. Concept of Cp and Cv. Isochoric, Isobaric, Isothermal and Adiabatic processes (detailed mathematical treatment).

  1. Thermodynamics (part 2)

Heat reservoirs,heat engines and refrigerators .Kelvin –Planck  statement and Clausius statement and their equivalence.Carnot’s theorem and its consequences.Carnot’s cycle- detailed mathematical treatment and various graphical representations.Concept of entropy as a state function. Clausius inequality and its significance and second law in terms of entropy. Equations of state (1st and 2nd equation of state). Calculation of entropy for various reversible and irreversible processes. Auxiliary state functions (G&A) – their variations with fundamental state functions T,P&V, criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium there from. Thermodynamics relations: Maxwell’s relation ,Gibb’s-Helmholtz equations. Joule’s experiment and its consequences. Joule-Thomson experiment – concept of Joule –Thomson co-efficient , concept of inversion temperature, comparison with isoentropic process. Thermochemistry –Heat changes during various physicochemical processes, Kirchoff’s relations, concept of standard state, Bond dissociation energy.

  1. Kinetics and Catalysis

Degree of advancement of a reaction. Rate law – reaction rate, rate constant, order and molecularity. Reactions of zero order, first order and fractional order ; Pseudo first order. Concept of r.d.s and S.S.A and their applications. Complex reactions -Parallel, opposing and consecutive. Temperature dependence of rate constant-Arrhenius’ equation, activation energy. Theory of reactions – collision theory and transition state theory-basic treatment, concept of enthalpy and free energy of activation. Primary kinetic salt effect and its applications. Lindemann theory of unimolecular reactions .Basic knowledge of catalyst and catalysis. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous catalysis. Acid base catalysis, auto catalysis and enzyme catalysis. Michaelis - Menten equation , influence of temperature and pH.

 

 

Module - 3

INORGANIC

(a) Chemical Bonding and structure-II

Molecular orbital concept of bonding (elementary pictorial approach):sigma and

pi-bonds, multiple bonding, MO diagrams of H2, F2, O2, C2, B2, CO, NO, CN-, HF, and

H2O; bond orders, bond lengths, Coordinate bonding: Lewis acid-base adducts (examples), double salts and complex salts, Werner theory of coordination compounds. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds (up to two metal centers). Coordination numbers, constitutional isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes. Weak interactions: Hydrogen bonding (concept, types; effect on properties) and Vander Waal forces. Metallic bonding: qualitative idea of band theory, conducting, semi conducting and insulating properties with examples from main group elements.

 (b) Chemistry of s- block Elements:

S – Block Elements:

General trends in Physical and Chemical properties of the Elements and their important classes of Compounds. Lithium and Beryllium: Anomalous behaviour and diagonal relationship. Hydrides: Classification and general properties. Noble gases, Clathrates: Types, preparation and stability. Fluorides and Oxides of Xenon: Preparation, properties, structure and bonding (VB and MO treatment).

ORGANIC

Organic Reaction Mechanism and Synthetic Applications:

Wittig reaction. Carbonyl Reduction: hydride addition, Wolff-Kishner reduction, dissolving metal (Bouveault-Blanc reduction, Clemmensen Reduction), Cannizzaro reaction, Tischenko reaction, aldol condensation, benzoin condensation, Hydrolysis of nitriles and isonitriles, Nucleophilic addition to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system (general principles), Claisen condensation, esterification and ester hydrolysis, Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, Reimer-Tiemann, benzoin condensation,Perkin reaction, Claisen rearrangement, Beckmann rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. Synthesis of simple molecules using standard reactions of organic chemistry. Grignard reagents, acetoacetic and malonic ester chemistry.

PHYSICAL

  1. Thermodynamics (part 3)

Basic open system:- chemical potential, partial molar quantities , concept of fugacity and activity for ideal gas, real gas ,ideal solution, real solution and electrolytic solution- Debye-Huckel statement and applications, thermodynamics of mixing, Nernst's distribution law and applications. Chemical eqm:- thermodynamics conditions for equilibrium, Van’t Hoff’s reaction isotherm – kp , kc and kx. Van’t Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochors- effect of temperature on K. Le-chatelier’s principle- effect of temperature , pressure and introduction of inert gas. Clausius – Clapyeron equation, concept of triple point, phase diagrams of one component system. Ionic equilibrium- pH and buffer solutions, hydrolysis, solubility product.

  1. Conductance

Electrical conductance – specific and equivalent conductance for strong and weak electrolytes and effect of dilution, concept of infinite dilution, mobility of ions, conductometric titrations. Kohlrausch’s law – independent migration and applications.Transport numbers- dependence and determination.

 

 

Module - 4

(a) Chemistry of p- block Elements:

P – Block Elements:

Comparative study (including diagonal relationship and anomalous behaviour) of groups

(13 -17).Boron Hydrides: Introduction, Nomenclature, Preparation, Properties, Structure and

bonding in diborane, borazine : structure, bonding and reactions,Carbides. Nitrogen Compounds: Hydrazine, Hydroxylamine, Oxides and Oxyacids of nitrogen (Properties, Structure- bonding & Uses).Oxygen fluorides, Oxides and Oxyacids of Sulphur (Properties, Structure-bonding) Halogens:General properties, Interhalogens; Polyhalides and Pseudohalogens, Structure -bonding(SN)x with x = 2, 4; phosphazines; Structure of borates, silicates, polyphosphates, borazole, boron nitride, silicones.

(b)  Qualitative Analysis and Redox Reactions

Qualitative Analysis:

Underlying principles- Common-ion effect, Solubility product, Relation between

Solubility and Solubility product.Analysis of Inorganic Mixtures; - Group reagents, Selective precipitation of cations; Precipitation of Sulphides and metal hydroxides.Reactions involved in Separation and identification of Cations and anions. .

Redox Reactions

Ion-electron method of balancing equation of redox reaction. Elementary idea on standard redox potentials with sign conventions, Nernst equation (without derivation). Influence of complex formation, precipitation and change of pH on redox potentials; formal potential. Feasibility of a redox titration, redox potential at the equivalence point, redox indicators. Redox potential diagram (Latimer and Frost diagrams) of common elements and their applications. Disproportionation and comproportionation reactions (typical examples).

ORGANIC

  1. Nitrogen compounds and Organometallics:

Nitrogen compounds: amines (aliphatic & aromatic), enamines, Mannich reaction, diazomethane, diazoacetic ester, aromatic nitro compounds, aromatic diazonium salts, nitrile and isonitrile.

 (b)Organometallics:

preparation of Grignard reagent and organo lithium. Reactions: addition of Grignard and organo lithium to carbonyl compounds, Reformatsky reaction.

(c)Rearrangements :

Beckmann rearrangement, Hofmann rearrangement, Bamberger rearrangement, Orton rearrangement, Fries rearrangement, Claisen rearrangement, cumene hydroperoxide-phenol rearrangement, Curtius rearrangement, Dakin reaction.

PHYSICAL

BASIC QUANTUM MECHANICS

  1. Quantum (part 1)

Preliminary quantum mechanics :-concept of black body radiations, basic theory of photoelectric effect ,de-Broglie’s wave particle duality, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Basic quantum mechanics:- Postulates of quantum mechanics –interpretation of wave function and their acceptability, elementary concept of operators –various types with examples, calculation of average values of various physical observables. Concept of particle in a box problem :- Detailed quantum mechanical treatment of particle in one dimensional box. Hence its extension to two and three dimensions and the concept of degenerate energy levels.

  1. Electrochemistry

Types of cells with examples and cell reactions , application of Nernst equation, ∆G, ∆H and ∆S of a cell reaction and its application in various types of potentiometric titrations-determination of solubility product and other examples, glass electrode and pH determination. Concentration cells with and without transport, liquid junction potential and its elimination, polarography.

 

 

Module - 5

INORGANIC

(a) Quantitative Analyses (Analytical Chemistry)

Gravimetry: Introduction, Preparation of Solution and Precipitation methods.

Physical properties of precipitates: Appearance, particle size and purity. Fractional

precipitation. Colloidal State: Supersaturation; Precipitate formation, Co-precipitation

and post - precipitation. Digestion, Washing, Ignition, and Gravimetric calculations.

Titrimetry: Acid - Base Titrations: Basic principles; preparation of standard solutions; primary and secondary standards, theory of Visual titration of acids and bases. Precipitation titrations: Basic principles; Detection of Equivalence points, (Mohr,Volhard, Fajans methods). Redox reagents and their Equivalent weights. Redox potentials and their applications in Volumetric analyses.Principle of complexometric EDTA titration, metal ion indicators (examples), nuclear reactions; applications of isotopes, Chromatographic techniques. Errors in chemical analysis. Principles and instrumentations of atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry.

ORGANIC

(a) Organic Synthesis:

 Synthesis of different molecules based on a complete retrosynthetic approach.

(b) Heterocyclic Chemistry:

 Monocyclic compounds with one hetero atom (Preparations and Reactions).

 

(c) Qualitative Organic Analysis:

 Functional group interconversions, structural problems using chemical reactions, identification of functional groups by chemical tests and by spectroscopic techniques.

 

PHYSICAL

  1. Thermodynamics (part 4)

Phase equilibrium- phase rule and its applications, binary system- ideal solutions, Duhem-Margules equations, Henry's law, Konowaloff's rule, fractional distillation, phase diagrams, azeotrope , eutectic, partial miscibility and critical solution temperature. Colligative properties: Thermodynamic derivation and their interrelationships, abnormal colligative properties.

  1. Quantum (part 2)

Rigid rotator and H-atom:-conversion of the problem to particle on a sphere problem in terms of polar- co-ordinate- solutions of the problems and interpretation of spherical harmonics-convergence of quantum numbers ‘l’ and ‘m’- shape of orbitals (S,p & d orbitals). Concept of quantum number : n, interpretation of the radial part, radial distribution function. Simple harmonic oscillation: Expressions for energy and wave functions and diagrams.

 

 

Module - 6

INORGANIC

(a) Transition & Inner Transition Elements

Transition Elements:

Definition, Classification, Position in the Periodic table and the Electronic Configuration.

Physico-chemical properties: Atomic radii, Ionic radii, Metallic character and related

Properties,Spectral and Magnetic properties.

Lanthanoids:; Introduction, Electronic configuration, Oxidation states,

Magnetic properties & Complexing behaviour. Ionic radii and Lanthanide contraction: Cause and Consequences of lanthanide Contraction Separation of lanthanoids: Ion-exchange methods.

Actinoids: Introduction, Electronic configuration, Oxidation states, Magnetic properties & Comparison with lanthanoids.

(b) Coordination,Organometallic & Bioinorganic Chemistry

Coordination Compounds:

Valence bond and Crystal field theories to explain, structure, bonding, magnetic and spectral properties in transition metal complexes-( tetrahedral; square planar and octahedral), 10 Dq ; Factors affecting the magnitude of 10 Dq; pairing energy and CFSE in weak and strong field ligands. Magnetism and Colour: Orbital and spin magnetic moments, spin only moments of dn ions and their correlation with effective magnetic moments, including orbital contribution; quenching of magnetic moment: super exchange and antiferromagnetic interactions (elementary idea with examples only); d-d transitions; L-S coupling; qualitative Orgel diagrams,selection rules for electronic spectral transitions; spectrochemical series of ligands; charge transfer spectra.

Organometallic Chemistry: 18-electron rule and its applications to carbonyls (including carbonyl hydrides and carbonylates), nitrosyls, cyanides, and nature of bonding involved therein. Metal-olefin complexes: Zeises salt (preparation, structure and bonding), Ferrocene (preparation, structure and reactions). Hapticity(η) of organometallic ligands,

Bioinorganic Chemistry: Metal ion transport across biological membrane

Na+-ion pump, ionophores. Biological functions of hemoglobin and myoglobin,

cytochromes and ferredoxins, carbonate bicarbonate buffering system and

carbonicanhydrase. Biological nitrogen fixation, Photosynthesis: Photosystem-I and

Photosystem-II. Toxic metal ions and their effects, chelation therapy (examples only), Pt and Au complexes as drugs (examples only)

ORGANIC

 (a)Natural Products Chemistry:

 Introduction to the following classes of compounds-alkaloids, terpenes, carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides and nucleic acids.

(b)cyclic stereochemistry:

Conformation & reactivity in cyclohexane system: elimination (E2), rearrangement, nucleophilic substitution (SN1, SN2, NGP), oxidation of cyclohexanol, esterification, saponification, lactonisation.

(c)Pericyclic chemistry: 

Simple applications based on Electrocyclic reactions, Cycloaddition reactions & Sigmatropic reactions.

PHYSICAL

  1. Spectroscopy

Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules-Rigid rotator model, selection rules , spectral lines , bond length and isotopic substation. Vibrational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules- SHO model, selection rules, spectrum, anharmonicity- energy levels, selection rules and spectrum. Roto-vibronic spectrum of diatomic molecules :branching of the spectral lines, Raman effect and its simple applications- mutual exclusion principle.

  1. Photochemistry

Laws of photochemistry and quantum yield. Lambert – Beer’s law and applications. Frank–Condon principle- Potential energy curves, Jablonski diagrams,Fluoroscene and phosphorescence and non-radiative decay,photochemical dissociations and pre-dissociation. Photostationary state, photosensitized reaction and actinometry. Theory of reactions – collision theory and transition state theory-basic treatment, concept of enthalpy and free energy of activation. Primary kinetic salt effect and its applications. Lindemann theory of unimolecular reactions. 

  1. Crystallography and solid state

Crystal planes, designation by rational indices, Bragg's law and its applications, percentage occupancy and crystal structures, heat capacities of solids- Einstein and Debye concepts.

  1. Interface and colloids

Adsorption- Langmuir and Frundlich, Gibbs and BET adsorption isotherms. Colloids- lyophilic and lyophobic and their stability, coagulation and Shultz-Hardy rule. Double layer with special reference to Zeta potential.

  1. Statistical mechanics

Macro and micro states, entropy and thermodynamic probability-Third Law of Thermodynamics, concepts of ensembles, fluctuations and residual entropy, Boltzmann distribution law, partition functions-physical meaning and evaluation of the absolute value of thermodynamic state function, barometric distribution law and applications, Nernst heat theorem, approach to zero Kelvin and adiabatic demagnetization, quantum statistics- Bose Einstein and Fermi Dirac statistics- fundamental concepts.

 

 


Schedule of preparatory tests

Our course for M.Sc. Entrance Examinations for 2nd year will commence from 1st May 2016. Since the University Examination has been deferred by a couple of months, we have decided to initiate the course from May 2016 itself so as avoid the deficiency of time in the 2nd year tenure.

Our course will continue from May to June in the current session, and then again it will start from the middle of September after the completion of the 1st year University Examination.



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For Details Check Student Hand Book



For Two Year Course

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